Chapter 1: Management 101
Management is defined as the organization or coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives. Management includes: Teamwork Communication Objective setting Performance appraisal.
It can also be said that management is the process of identifying problems and resolving conflicts within a team in order to increase productivity and create an adequate work environment for all individuals. Management is both art and science. The primary goal of this type of management is to create a meaningful experience.
Chapter 2: Principles of Management
Division of work
Authority and responsibility: With authority, the superiors have the ability to issue their commands, but responsibility means they have to accept the consequences of their commands (good or bad).
Discipline: It refers to obedience and acceptable conduct between all people in the workplace.
Unity of command: According to this principle, subordinates should receive commands from one superior only. Receiving commands from more people creates confusion and decreases productivity which leads to conflict.
Unity of direction: All people who work within the same activity should pursue and understand the same objectives.
Subordination and individual interest: personal interests of individuals should never prevail over the interests of the company.
Remuneration: This management principle declares that workers should be paid sufficiently and the amount of money they receive should be: Fair Reasonable Rewarding of effort.
Degree of Centralization: Central management is the practice where the decision-making authority is always someone at the top management. Decentralization is the practice of sharing some authority with the lower levels. Adequate management and team leadership should incorporate both practices in proper balance.
Scalar chain: clearly defines everyone’s role which leads to increased productivity and a respectful workplace environment, which helps to lower conflicts.
Order: Social – ensures a stable work environment for people based on mutual respect which guarantees a fluid operation. Material – ensures efficiency and safety for all people.
Equity: A good manager is one that is fair, impartial, and who gives equal attention to all people in the team.
Stability of tenure and personnel: period of service should not be too short and that the members of the team, organization or company should not change positions frequently.
Esprit de Corps: Team spirit leads to increased productivity.
Chapter 3: Management Styles
Directive or autocratic
“Do what I tell you and as I tell you” attitude. This management style can be effective in some cases: When there is a crisis At the time of risky deviations. This management style is not effective when: Employees aren’t developed enough. Employees are highly educated and skilled
Authoritative or visionary
The manager is firm but fair Employees have a clear direction on what to do The manager provides detailed feedback about the employee’s performance in relation to certain tasks. Authoritative management style is effective when: Certain standards and clear directions are needed The manager is credible and competent to do the job. This management style is not effective when: Some employees are not developed The manager is not credible or competent to do the job.
“People first, work second” type of manager Manager is focused on avoiding conflicts and creating a stable work environment Manager motivates workers by trying to make them happy. This management style is effective when: It is combined with other management styles The tasks that team members have are routine It also involves help and counseling There is a conflict that has to be resolved. This management style is not effective when: There are crisis situations that require better leadership The performance of the teams is not adequate.
Participative or democratic
Manager allows the employees to take part in the decision-making process Manager motivates employees by rewarding team effort Everything is agreed by voting and prevalence of majority The communication is extensive in both directions (employees – managers and vice versa). This management style is effective when: All employees have to work together Employees are credible and have enough experience Work environment is steady. This management style is not effective when: Employees are not coordinated There is a serious crisis – there is no time to meet and listen to everyone’s input The task is competitive and requires closer supervision.
Manager does a lot of the work Manager requires employees to follow his or her example Manager motivates employees by setting high standards. This management style is effective when: The work environment is highly competitive Employees are motivated The task does not require too much coordination Employees are experts in a certain business. This management style is not effective when: The task requires coaching, coordination, and development The task requires assistance from others.
Coaching or laissez-faire
The manager is dedicated to the development of employees The manager encourages employees and helps them improve their performance The manager provides professional opportunities in order to motivate employees. This management style is effective when: The type of task requires development of skills Employees are motivated. This management style is not effective when: The manager doesn’t have enough expertise to develop employees There is a crisis in the company The performance is not at a high enough level.
Other management styles
Consultative, Persuasive, Chaotic, Management By Walking Around (MBWA), Asian paternalistic
One management style cannot be appropriate for all problems and situations that can occur; therefore having versatile management styles is the key.
Chapter 4: The Purpose of Management
Incorporating quality management with quality performance usually results in success of the business.
According to Fayol the purpose of management is to: Organize, Plan and forecast – the “flow” of the process,
Control, Command, Coordinate
Chapter 5: The Importance of Management for Business Success
Management can make or break a business. Management includes strategic planning, managing resources, setting objectives, motivating employees, and deploying financial assets. Effectiveness is the relationship between the goals set by the manager and the team that is supposed to achieve these goals. Efficiency refers to the association between the achievement of the goals and resources.
Chapter 6: Managerial Roles
Informational managerial roles: Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson
Interpersonal managerial roles: Figurehead, Leader, Liaison
Decisional managerial roles: Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler, Resource allocator, Negotiator
A good manager of a team or entire business can never assume one role. These roles overlap and it is up to the manager to learn how to balance them and manage the team or company effectively. According to Mintzberg, the ideal manager is the one who implements various management styles and roles according to the situations, tasks, and team members.
Chapter 7: Why is Teamwork Important
Teamwork doesn’t mean that everybody within that team is doing the same thing. It means that it is a process where the sum is greater than the parts. Every team member has his or her own task and works together with the rest of the team to achieve one goal - success.
Chapter 8: How to Be a Good Leader
Good team leaders are compassionate and possess integrity, but they also educate and are informed about the qualities they should possess and manners they should use when managing their teams.
Communication, Organization, Confidence, Respect, Fairness, Integrity, Influence/Commitment, Delegation, Facilitation, Negotiation, Positive attitude, Creativity
Chapter 9: Delegation
Delegation is defined as the reassignment of authority or responsibility to another person (usually from manager to team member).
When you are deciding whether to delegate, consider:
Time – whether you have enough time for delegation.
Availability – whether someone is available to perform that task.
Criticality – whether the task is critical to the success of the project or business.
How to delegate?
Delegation requires high communication skills in order to explain to employees what is expected of them.
Clarify expectations – you should be able to explain to the team member to whom you delegate what you need from that person and why that work is important.
Request updates – in order to make sure the person to whom you have delegated the task is performing it according to the plan, you should establish checkpoints.
Delegate the task, not the process. As a good manager, you should always strive to focus on the result of the process, not the process itself.
Define your own role – before you delegate the task, you should explain to the team member how much support you will provide.
Explain the consequences – prior to delegating, you should explain what the end result of the task would mean.
To whom to delegate
Organizational structure – you should always delegate to people who work for you.
Staff buy-in – depending on the task, you should include the entire staff in discussion about the delegation.
Team vs. individual – some tasks can be conducted by one person. However, some tasks require more people.
Competency – in order to delegate successfully, you should make sure the person to whom you delegate is competent and credible.
Chapter 10: How to Earn Trust from Team Members
You can’t make employees trust you; you have to earn their trust.
Build rapport, Diplomatic approach, Establish your credibility-people trust managers who don’t only tell them what to do, but who teach them how to improve, Resolve conflicts, Be a good communicator-you should also try to get to know the people on your team, Empower the team
Chapter 11: How to Build Trust Within the Team
How the team members lose trust
Inconsistency – there is nothing that can confuse or frustrate people more than inconsistency. When there is a lot of inconsistency within the team, people are frustrated and that increases the rates of conflict, Seeking personal gain, Withholding information, Lies, Close-mindedness-All the points mentioned above can result in conflicts or with an unstable and hostile work environment and it is the manager’s job to resolve these issues.
How to build the trust within the team
Motivate all team members to finish all tasks successfully which will restore consistency in the group. Always stress to the team members that interests of the overall business are a priority and you, as a manager, will never prioritize personal gain, and that team members should follow this example. You, as the manager of the team, should provide the same quantity of information to all team members. Lies and deceptions on the workplace should never be tolerated, and you should deal with these situations according to the rules or codes already determined by the business’ policy. One of the roles of managers is to make sure that all team members express their opinions or beliefs. Managers should also point out and prove to team members that their success (and success of the business overall) depends on their mutual collaboration and respect that is based on trust.
A good manager is the manager who makes all team members feel included in the workplace and has to make sure all members realize they are equal. The manager’s job is also to provide the purpose for the team members.
Chapter 12: How to Manage Teams
Team management problems: Lack of trust, Fear of conflict, Lack of commitment, Avoidance and accountability, Inattention to results,
Elements of a healthy team: Cohesive leadership-This also shows that the team is united and the entire business is heading in the same direction, Effective communication, Common goal, Defined team roles
Fixing problems in the team: Various team building activities-Back to back drawing, Human knot. Volunteering, Physical activities , Field trips, Share meals-managers should allow all members of their teams to go to coffee break or lunch break together. Having an analytical thinker also helps build and maintain the balance in the team. An analytical thinker is the person who pays attention to every detail; something that other people (even you) could miss.
Basic team management skills: Plan-Good management is based on thorough planning. Without a good plan, you will not be able to succeed, Organize, Direct, Monitor
Chapter 13: Common Management Mistakes
Not providing feedback- It is the manager’s job to check the members’ performance and provide the feedback.
Not having time for the team.The manager is the one who is supposed to lead the team and you should always find time for the members.
Too relaxed attitude- The best solution is to incorporate different management styles according to the specific situation.
Failing to define goals- One of the most important aspects of the manager’s job is to be able to define all goals clearly. Team members, employees, etc. should be able to understand what you want from them.
Lack of dedication and commitment
The final advice for you is not to be afraid of stating your own opinion and making your own decisions. You are the manager and as a manager, you should be able to work in the best interests of the business.